The words “EQUAL JUSTICE UNDER LAW” are written above the Supreme Court Building’s main entrance, and they describe the Supreme Court of the United States’ ultimate duty. For all issues and controversies arising under the Constitution or the laws of the United States, the Court is the highest tribunal in the country. The Supreme Court serves as the final arbiter of law, upholding the promise of equal justice under the law for all Americans. In doing so, it also serves as the Constitution’s protector and interpreter.

The Chief Justice of the United States sits on the Supreme Court, together with whichever many Associate Justices Congress deems appropriate. Eight Associate Justices are currently required by law (28 U. S. C. §1). The President of the United States has the authority to appoint Justices, and such decisions are made with the advice and agreement of the Senate.